Are you running your laptop on battery when you record?
I still think it's something in the DAW. I've never used the Sound Recorder app that comes with Windows, because, like almost everything else that comes stock on a Windows PC, it sucks. But you do realize that there is an increase speed/decrease speed option in the Sound Recorder menu--under "effects", right?
Go get Audacity
and see if the problem persists. Don't mess around with .mp3 conversion. Record a standard 16-bit 44.1k wave file.
The microphone type and model, preamp model, cable type, CPU model, sound card model, etc... all have nothing to do with the pitch of the recording.
If you record something at 16-bit 48k, and try to play it back with a standard media player, it will either play it back correctly, or not play it at all because the bit-rate, or sample rate is too high.
This is NOT analog tape we're talking about here. The sample rate that is recorded has nothing to do with the play back pitch. Pitch shifting capabilities is a fairly advanced and complex process which requires lots of CPU horse power.
If your recording is playing back at the original speed, at a different pitch, then you have enabled some kind of pitch correction somewhere. If your recording is playing back at a higher speed, at a higher pitch, then you have enabled some kind of speed correction.
The only other possibility is that you have your clock speed set wrong in the BIOS. restarts your computer, press (I think) F10, and go into your system set up and make sure that your clock speed is set correctly, and that it is not set to a lower speed. Also change the battery in your motherboard (probably a CR2032 type battery). If the battery is low or dead, it will not save your current set up parameters, and will default to a lower clock speed upon start up as a safety measure. Replacing the battery will ensure that your settings will be saved upon reboot.