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Grafton + TH & C alto || Naked Lady 10M || TT soprano || Martin Comm III
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That ceiling insulation appears to be thermal. The Amazon ones say sound proofing but I doubt they would do much. I would recommend adding mass such as plasterboard / dry lining.
I don't know of any soundproof curtains. I would suggest Double glazing and replace the door with something more substantial such as a fire door and make sure it fits well.

a room within a room is best but maybe not practical in a small area like this.

I have written a few articles on treatment, but soundproofing is a very different thing to acoustic treatment such as HF baffles etc

See

 

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Grafton + TH & C alto || Naked Lady 10M || TT soprano || Martin Comm III
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In a basement, in addition to door and windows, the most effective soundproofing may be the ceiling. In my first studio I added extra drywall to the ceiling, but the best thing was having access to the ceiling cavity via the floorboards above. If you can do this and the ceiling below is strong enough, then the best/cheapest actual soundproofing is to just pour an inch or two of sand in there.

We made sure the extra drywall was screwed properly to the joists.

This was the single most effective for that room as sound transmission upwards was the biggest issue, but secondary thick glazing and forefoot also helped a lot.

any acoustic panels can help slightly but only in that they cut down reflections within the room that help the acoustics if the room is a bit too ambient, andso very slight soundproofing
 

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Grafton + TH & C alto || Naked Lady 10M || TT soprano || Martin Comm III
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If I were going to have a ceiling board holding up anything more than its own weight
Yes, if in doubt something stronger that drywall. Much will depend on how close the joists are but we got a decent idea after an inch of sand in one area.
The other thing I'm still curious about is if I do try those rockwool panels - do I cover the entire ceiling in them?
I doubt they will do much at all apart from internal HF damping and not needed to cover entirely.

Best to put in frames and suspend 2 inches away from ceiling and walls. Use acoustically transparent covering.

My second home studio control room:
108798


a lot of the cheaper proprietary so called acoustic treatment isn't great - more use cosmetically very often
 

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Grafton + TH & C alto || Naked Lady 10M || TT soprano || Martin Comm III
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Pete Thomas' picture gives a good idea of what I mean.
Bear in mind that picture is actiually my control room. The live room does not have the HF baffles, only because it doesn't seem to need it.

Interesting story about the live room is that I had a remote acoustic consultant who designed the baffles and positioning partly from room plans and description and my own frequency test results, but here's the clever thing. I initailly rang him to discuss the room. He said "are you in the room right now" "yes I said" and he responded "sounds like a suspended floor with about 3 foot cavity"

It's actually a 2' 9" cavity but I was well impressed.

I didn't make bass traps as it wasn't required based on the frequency testing (ie play a sine wave frequency sweeping from 40 Hz up to 10kHz and record it with mic in various different parts of the room.

You then play back the recordings on a DAW and check with a frequency analyser plugin. Ideally it is totally flat, but any significant peaks show you where you need any damping of specific frequencies in the room.

Double glazing can causea peak at 110Hz, radiators can obviously have a resonance at certain frequencies.
 
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