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Do many folks practice enclosures specifically?

If so, I'd love some suggestions for practicing them effectively.

any links to lessons/stuff on-line would be cool too!
 

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Grafton alto | Martin Comm III tenor
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I just practise them on (triad) arpeggios. I've tried with extensions and scales but that makes my brain hurt, I might get around to it one day.

Most commonly I play diatonic note above, then chromatic note below, ie one semitone below so it acts as a neighbour note or what I sometimes call a fake leading note. (Well, it's a real leading note if it goes to the tonic or root) e.g. A F# G - C A# B - E C#D and so on

Or you can also do the above note as a semitone for a more beboppish kind of sound. Ab F# G - C A# B - Eb C# D

As I said, I would just stick to arpeggios first, but another cool thing (which I use with many ornaments) is to get a ballad, and play the ornament on every single note. This is purely an exercise, you'd never do that in real life, but it's a great discipline which makes you think about tunes in a different way and able to apply ornaments where you might not otherwise.
 

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Grafton alto | Martin Comm III tenor
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By enclosures do you mean approaches?
I think of them as approach from above, then below, then the actual (enclosed) note. As in the examples in my post above (A F# G etc). I think that's what they are anyway.
 

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Ok, I think of approaches as either from above or from below, not both onto the note.
I was always taught an approach can be any group of notes taking you towards another note. Of course that could be taken to be anything but usually approaches are within a 2nd of the note being approached. Enclosure is a good term though. I never used it before.
 

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Grafton alto | Martin Comm III tenor
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I was always taught an approach can be any group of notes taking you towards another note. Of course that could be taken to be anything but usually approaches are within a 2nd of the note being approached. Enclosure is a good term though. I never used it before.
Whatever, I think it's nice to define a difference between say, one approach tone (ie one note that acts as a leading note but to any chord tone) and the ornament that is a typical bebop one of above, below then the note.

I first heard the term in a book about Bird, he was quite fond of them. It does also seem Wikipedia defines it as such, but that doesn't always mean much. I guess the vocabulary of jazz theory is not universally consistent.

Plus you are right, enclosure is a good term as it describes what it does.
 

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The terms, as I use them, would be that an "enclosure" is a combination of "approaches" from both above and below the target pitch. If it is ONLY from below or ONLY from above, those would be approaches.

Edit: to add a recommendation for the OP. Steve Neff's book of approaches (and enclosures) is a great resource!
 

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There is a book by Joe Viola (Berklee Press) that has these enclosures (upper diatonic-lower auxiliary) written out in major and minor triads, diminished 7, half-diminished, dominant, etc...The concepts in the book are great, but I prefer to learn just that- the concepts- then practice them without reading through the keys. This way you internalize the knowledge. The book makes a handy reference though. Once you learn the concepts, it's easy to create patterns and to locate or learn to hear them in transcriptions or solos.

Randy
www.randyhunterjazz.com
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Study Clifford Brown solos! His solos were the first that really made me aware of the importance of enclosures in the melodic shape of your lines.[/url]
There's an excellent example of a descending series of one of these types of enclosures in bars 47-49 of Hank Mobley's solo on "Remember." I have the transcription on my site at:
www.randyhunterjazz.com/Transcriptions2.htm

It's a great pattern to practice through the keys.

I've heard Lou Donaldson do the same exact series, I believe on "Three Little Words," except the notes were displaced rhythmically with the upper diatonic on the downbeat.

Randy
www.randyhunterjazz.com
Online Jazz Lessons and Books
New Lesson: Shaping the Blues Scale
Lessons page: www.beginningsax.com/Jazz Improv Lessons.htm
Podcast Samples: http://www.youtube.com/user/saxtrax
Rhythm Changes Demo: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SrT0Xw_y9d0
 

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I really like the sound of enclosures, although I'm still working on getting a good 'working' knowledge of them---how to use them in my solos. Generally, the enclosed (target) note is a chord tone, especially the 3rd. There are many ways to use them, and Pete mentioned some good approaches (if I can use that term). One I really like is two half steps from below, then two half steps from above, finally landing on the chord tone. Like this, say on a Dmi7 chord (targeting the F):

Eb E G Gb F. Then you can arpeggiate up from the F: F A C E, and move to D-- into a G7 chord, if it's a ii-V line, etc. You can go other directions, once you land on the F (3rd of the D chord). That's just one example, but it you fool around with it you'll get the idea.

I like to try this stuff on the piano, as well as the horn, just to see how it sounds.

p.s. I've been using half note approaches from below the chord tone for years. Maybe too much, but it's very effective. I use them a lot playing over dominant chords in the blues: For example Eb to E on a C7 chord. Enclosures are simply an extension of this idea.
 

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Discussion Starter #14
Thanks for all the great ideas everyone!

It's definitely when I listen to classic bebop--Bird, Clifford Brown etc.--that I really get hit with how big a part of the "language" these figures are.

Technically, I guess they are examples of simple chromaticism: half step up--half step below--chord tone. Musically, I guess the big challenge is fitting them in (melodically/rhythmically) to phrases. The way Bird does this is just amazing...obviously!

This is the thing I want to practice--i.e. not just random grace notes, but more jazzy (birdlike) phrases.
 

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Thanks for all the great ideas everyone!

It's definitely when I listen to classic bebop--Bird, Clifford Brown etc.--that I really get hit with how big a part of the "language" these figures are.

Technically, I guess they are examples of simple chromaticism: half step up--half step below--chord tone. Musically, I guess the big challenge is fitting them in (melodically/rhythmically) to phrases. The way Bird does this is just amazing...obviously!

This is the thing I want to practice--i.e. not just random grace notes, but more jazzy (birdlike) phrases.
They are great on stuff which has for example a major 7th chord for 2 bars. I would practice them diatonic up, chromatic below- chord tone. Or wholestep below, halfstep below, diatonic up, half step below, chord tone.

they sound better when you use a triad imho then a 7th chord and enclosure of the 7th doesn't sound as good unless you are imposing another chord I guess
 

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Technically, I guess they are examples of simple chromaticism: half step up--half step below--chord tone. Musically, I guess the big challenge is fitting them in (melodically/rhythmically) to phrases.
Half steps and/or whole steps, depending...

I think the trick to fitting them in rythmically is to place the 'target note' (usually a chord tone) on the downbeat, usually, but not always, beat 1 or 3.

So for the simplest situation--one approach note (say from a half step below), start on the upbeat and land on the target note on a downbeat. For a two-note enclosure (one note above, one below) start on a downbeat. This is assuming you are playing eighth notes of course.
 

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One thing I do for anything I'm working on, is get a lick I like that incudes whatever it is. I just remembered one of my favourite enclosures, which is not the 3rd and up to the root. This isn't necessarily your typical bop enclosure, it's great for blues and R & B. There are several variations which I recommend practising in all keys:

Am7 D7 G: (in 1/8 notes) C B A B F# D C A# | B G (usually up to the G but could of course be down)

Bluesier version: (e.g. King Curtis) C Db C Bb G D C A# | B G
 

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Discussion Starter #18

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Sometimes series of approach notes have specific names. "Enclosures" is simple form just means using an upper neighbor tone and lower chromatic neighbor tone before the note. Changing the order and adding in extra chromatic notes changes it up somewhat. I've also heard them called "Encircling Tones". There's a similar approach known as the "sawtooth". Over a Dm-G7, that would be D A C A B. When you look at it written on staff paper, the shape of the line kind of look like teeth on a saw, hence the name.
 
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