Hi, SoulMate! I've spent a lot of time and energy experimenting with guitar pedals in my saxophone setup over the last dozen years. You'll find a bunch of threads on the forum about that topic, and also over at horn-fx.com
where they've done a great job collecting resources for things like this. I've had the pleasure of spending some time with Jeff Coffin and I know he's spent quite a lot of time figuring out the intricacies of using pedals with horns as well.
I own a larger version of the Micro Q-Tron and it might be the most challenging pedal I've ever tried to use with the saxophone. It quickly goes to feedback city. The gain spike that happens when the envelope triggers is hard enough to control on a guitar or keyboard using a TRS connection. The much more variable signal of a microphone will make it very tough to control.
I love envelope filters like the Q-Tron, though, and the best I've found is the MXR Bass Envelope Filter. It's very high-quality, smooth, and you can dial in your mix and gain settings very easily. That's really important for use with horns.
In the end, you'll want more than just an XLR to TRS adapter for using pedals with a microphone. The best way to go is to get a box that works as a preamp as well as an effects loop so you can control your gain stages really carefully, prevent feedback, and send enough gain to the pedals that they trigger properly, like they would with a guitar. I use the Radial VocoLoco,
it's fantastic, but there are other solid alternatives out there if you search a little.
I love pedals. Have fun on your quest!