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114 Posts
Discussion Starter · #1 · (Edited)
Jan 3, 2023:

A little history on this horn .. it was my paternal grandfather's personal sax and hasn't been played probably since the 40s or so. Looking it over, nothing is frozen and everything moves freely and returns to position ... Although a few return slowly most likely due to needing cleaning and lubrication.It's been stored in climate controlled environments, and I was happy to see nothing is seized due to rust.

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My wife and I are both long time musicians, although we play stringed instruments ... I don't know much about horns. Both my kids play horns though. My daughter is a 5th year trumpet player (who plays on her maternal grandfather's 1960 Selmer trumpet) and my 14 year old son is a 3rd year saxophone student who primarily plays a Yamaha YAS200AD student alto, sometimes the school's bari sax, and most recently we picked up a Yamaha 62III tenor for him.

All that said ... His great grandfather's C Melody has been hanging on the wall over his bed as a decorative piece for a couple of years, and he really, really wants to play it. I've brought it to a couple of repair shops and they all give me quotes around $850 - $1k to make it playable and tell me it's not worth repairing.

Now I'm a mechanically capable guy, and have done many restorations of stringed instruments with an appropriate toolset to do so ... but have never worked on a horn. I'm not one who has ever let "not knowing how to do something" stop me from doing it though :)

Considering I've nothing to lose from trying to get this sax playing for my son, and it would be really great for him to be able to play around on his great-grandfathers saxophone, I decided I'd give it a go ... hence joining this forum and making this initial post :)

I've watched a few videos and read up a little bit on what this will take, knowing I'm starting from zero knowledge, expecting to make a few mistakes along the way ... but my goal is really to just have it playable even if it still has issues. My son won't be able to use it for band or UIL or anything like that, but it would be nice if it was playable.

So I've ordered a digital caliper, a Wiha screwdriver set, a LED leak light kit and started looking at re-pad kits. I came across this "Shopforband" website which sells C Melody pad kits, but I've no idea if this is a good place to get them.

C-Melody sax pads, saxaphone pads

My thought is to take lots of pictures, and take my time doing a section at a time. Removing the keys, rods etc .. a section at a time and replacing the pads while cleaning and lubing it up.

Will I get in over my head here? I read a good tip is to take a picture of the sax and print it out. Then affix it to a block of foam so I can insert the parts into the foam, on the picture, corresponding to where they were removed. This seemed like a smart approach to keeping everything organized.

Would it be a good idea to soak the entire horn in water with dish soap before I begin any work to it .. or is it best to just clean things in sections as I go along?

Here's a few more pictures of the horn ... I think it's a 1923 based on the serial number.

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Edit - Feb 9, 2023:

After much help from the folks in this thread, here's a look at the final outcome :) Keep reading to see how I got from the above, to the below ...

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114 Posts
Discussion Starter · #10 ·
Thanks guys, for all the great input and tips, I truly appreciate it!

The sax is in pretty good shape for being 100 years old, although the pads are pretty torn up and even missing a few. Some of the key cork/felt pieces are missing too ... But to an untrained eye, nothing looks bent or out of shape.

I'll be sure to calibrate the digital caliper before using it to measure the cups, good point. I have my luthier tools I can use for this.

The zip lock bags is a great idea. Maybe I'll take pictures of the sax, label the picture with #s at key points, and then number the zip locks with the components from that point. This should be a good way to keep it all organized, while also allowing me to fully disassemble it for a deep clean and polish.

Speaking of cleaning and polish ... what is good to use for this? On my guitars, I use car care products but I don't think those would be good to use here. For the initial cleaning to remove the 80 or so years of build-up ... do I just use dish soap and water?

What about cleaning the inside ... is it recommended to get the inside just as clean as the outside, and if so, how do you go about scrubbing that down in there? Does the smoothness of the inside affect the sound at all, or is it just cosmetic?

I read somewhere (or maybe saw it in one of the YouTube videos I watched) that I shouldn't use any liquid based polishes. So is there a gold standard for dry polish which is good to use on nickel horns, or maybe a particular type of cloth?

As for pads ... it sounds like the best bet is to measure every one of the cups, document it, and then reach out to MM for replacements. It looks like they have several different types. Is the Neo pad a good choice for something like this? Meaning for a horn which won't be used for performance, and for someone who will be doing this for the 1st time. They seem to promote "auto-leveling" for the neo pads, which to me, sounds like a great thing ... but maybe it's a gimmick? It looks like you put the pad on the spud, then glue the spud onto the cup, so the pad can tilt/float on it. Seems like a good idea to me and would make it easier for someone who's never leveled tone holes before ... but I realize I have a lot to learn.

For replacing the missing key cork, is there a standard thickness to use for that, or is each setup a little different and requires measuring and choosing the correct thickness for each replacement piece?

I saw in some videos where the technician is wrapping felt around some of the rods in particular locations. I don't see any felt on any of the rods, or even any indication there ever was any on the rods. So is this just a feature of some horns and not all ... or is it a preference thing, or maybe a higher end trait?

Thanks again for all the great info .. it's a big help to this newbie ... and my son will thank you if I can pull this off :)

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Discussion Starter · #14 ·
Thank you @PigSquealer , I appreciate the your input and encouragement :)

I ordered a saxophone spring tool set today instead of trying to make one myself. My wife is also an avid knitter with many knit and croquet tools ... so if I get stuck, I can always commandeer one of them, ha!

The digital caliper is scheduled for delivery today, although I have an event to play tonight ... so hopefully I can begin the measurement and documentation process tomorrow.

When I get to reassembly, should I be using some sort of machine oil on pivot points and friction areas? If so, any particular brand/type which is best?

It looks like MM has a pad kit specifically for the Conn straight neck c-mel:

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Although several folks above have said not to order a kit. I plan to measure everything anyway, so maybe I can order the kit and send all my measurements to MM as additional info?

In terms of ordering the pads, I did a bit of reading about resonators. Without getting into all the contentious points about their value or impact to the sound and sealing properties ... I would like to know if this horn had any resonators from the factory.

I did a quick Google search for "1923 Conn C Melody" to see if I could find out, but it's tough to tell. I do see some results with a description stating "all original" which shows resonators, but most results do not.

I think this is a "New Wonder I" horn, correct? Although it doesn't have any engraving on it.

Here's an example of one of the images I found which states its all original:

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My thought was to order the Softfeel pads with whatever resonator option most closely matches what it would have had from the factory.

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Discussion Starter · #16 ·
Thanks @Grumps ... I've come across your posts in my reading through the site, and can appreciate your point of view. The C Melody seems to be a niche, and agreed, will have no value for my son in his school's band. This year he is 1st chair alto, but he'll be switching to tenor for his freshman year of high school next year. Hence we bought him the Yani 62III recently which he'll start using during his weekly private lessons.

As a musical family, we have dozens of instruments (guitars, basses, cello, violins, ukulele, trumpets, saxophones, keyboards, etc, etc, etc ...). Some vintage, some modern. I typically like all of them to be playable, and have built a skillset in repairing and restoring stringed instruments over the years.

With both of my kiddos playing horns, and each with a passion for music (my son actually spent his allowance $$ and commissioned a full score piece from Jon Burr so his school band could play it), I see some long term value in acquiring the tools and some experience in working on horns. Doing it along with my son will also give him some knowledge on being able to care for his own as he matures as well.

And ... using my grandfather's c-melody as the learning piece really brings zero risk in my opinion. If I can at least get it cleaned up and repadded, maybe getting a shop to do the final adjustments would be a good approach?

I also have a dedicated workspace in my home office for working on instruments, so I can take my time and be in no rush as i go through it and learn.

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Discussion Starter · #19 ·
Great points @turf3. When I'm documenting the details, I'll take measurements of both the cups and the tone holes. This way, I can be sure any resonator or booster won't interfere. I did do a quick look over the ports and all of the pads seem to be well centered with exception of the two larger ones closest to the bell. But even those are only off by maybe 1/2mm or so.

Nice @Grumps ... I love having so many instruments around. My son learned on an Alto in 6th grade, and then within the first week of his 2nd year, he tried the bari sax and fell in love with the tone. So he switched and played bari sax all of his 2nd year. Then on the 3rd year, the director asked him if he would switch back to alto instead, as they had two bari payers (him included) and were short an alto; so he switched back.

He's been wanting to play tenor all year though, but the 8th grade director said they really needed him to stay on alto. My daughter is 1st chair trumpet in 10th grade, and my wife and I are heavily involved in the marching band ... so I spoke to the high school director about my son playing tenor next year for both marching and concert, and he said no problem.

This is why we bought him a tenor now, and will have him start using it during his weekly private lessons. So by the time he starts 9th grade next year, he'll be in good shape.

We all play various instruments (my daughter also plays melophone, a little but of acoustic guitar, as well as electric bass guitar in a jazz band, all in addition to trumpet) and I've always instilled the value of learning as many instruments as you can with my kids. The biggest weakness I consistently see in other musicians I've played with isn't their skill with their own instrument, but is a full understanding of the music itself. Knowing when to play and when not to, knowing each instruments place in the overall mix, being able to ad-lib (tastefully) when called for, etc ... Of course, music theory classes can help here, but really, just learning new instruments and playing with diverse groups has always been the best teacher to me.

My son's latest instrument is actually harmonica. I came home one day to find him on YouTube with a harmonica in his hand ... He had bought himself a harmonica and was watching online lessons to learn how to play it :)

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Discussion Starter · #30 ·
Thanks again guys for all the great input! It's very much appreciated.

These are some ideas I posted a while back. So Ya Wanna Learn Sax Repair. If you order pads from Music Medic, I recommend measuring the interior diameter both north and south of each key cup with a ruler with millimeter markings. Try to measure within the accuracy of .5mm which are how they are sold.
Thanks, great read and definitely helpful.

The plain brass or nickel-plated Conns weren't engraved. The silver and gold-plated ones were.

Original Conn C-mels I've seen from that era had rather puffy white pads without resonators.
That makes sense, and seems like these are the original 100 year old pads then.

@Stoopalini there’s always a chance this instrument might play as is. I haven’t seen all the pads. You may be able to disassemble it, clean, oil, reassemble and regulate.
Although it may be necessary to change a few pads. Usually the ones that are always closed. If nothing else it would be a very good learning experience.
in your supplies you’re also going to need some contact cement to apply the cork. Pipe cleaners to clean the tubes along with a little zippo lighter fluid. lighter fluid you can pick up at 7-Eleven for two dollars.
The pads are completely deteriorated. Many are already falling off, while others are just falling apart. Everything else about the horn seems to be in great shape though.

Last night I took a screwdriver to it to see how difficult the pivot and rod screws would be to remove. I went after a few easily accessible ones as a test and they're all coming off fairly easily; except for one which was caused by a rookie mistake I made ... Here's a picture showing the various states of the pads.

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The rookie mistake was not realizing there are locking screws for some of the pivot screws :( I thought one of the pivot screws was stuck, as it backed out a few turns and then got stuck. So I dabbed it with PB Blaster and let it sit overnight, and tried again today. It was still stuck, so I rocked it back and forth (ie: screwed it in and out repeatedly over the extent it was moving), and ended up sheering a bit of the screw head off. At that point, I grabbed a magnifier and had a closer look ... it's only then I realized there was a locking set screw in the side of the post! 🤦‍♂️

Once I removed that, the pivot screw came right out.

Here's the penalty for my ignorant mistake:

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The screwdriver can still bite on the pivot screw, but there's a part of me which would like to replace it due to the damage. Not sure how I can go about finding one though ... are they standard sized?

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The good news is everything seems to be easily removed, and the finish also look like it will clean up nicely.

In this picture, you can see where I did a bit of cleaning and wiping down of the finish with a terry cloth just to see how well it will clean up. There is what looks like some light surface rust which is coming right off.

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The springs have some light surface rust as well, which a q-tip soaked with PB blaster seems to take off. Looking at one of the springs, it appears they were coated (with the nickel finish from the factory maybe?) but has flaked off over time. Is this typical?

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Discussion Starter · #33 ·
Pretty sure that's chrome. How do you know how to clean/polish without knowing what it is?
I was told by two different local techs that the finish of the body is nickel. To test clean that portion in the picture, I just took a terry cloth and wiped it down.

I still don't know what I'll use to polish it when I reassemble though, if that's what you mean?

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Discussion Starter · #36 ·
Thanks @turf3, I sent Feree's an email asking if they can help with a replacement pivot screw as well as some extra set screws. If they can't help here, I'll take the screws to my local repair shop and see if they can.

Also makes sense on the cleaning/polishing. Just wiping it down with a rag like I did make it look great, without any polish at all. I do notice some gray hazing on a couple of the cups, but only where the center support meets the cup itself. I tried to get a picture of it:

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The same cup looks completely different from a different angle though LOL

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In any case, it's a 100 year old horn and I won't spend a bunch of time/energy on trying to polish it to a mirror shine. I'll probably just clean it up and use a cloth to posh it without any product.

Here's my plan for organization:

I'll label each cup/hole combo in the order I remove them on the pictures I took...
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... measure both the cup and the tone hole, and record the measurements in an excel sheet ...

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... then place the cups, rods, etc into ziploc bags also labeled with the numbers ...

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I figure I can leave the springs, pivot screws, set screws, and even some of the rods on the sax in their appropriate locations as well.

This way, I should be able to keep track of which pads are for which cups when the new set arrives, as well as reassemble it in reverse order using the numbers when it comes time.

After reading some of the replies above, it seems I should also measure the open distance from tone hole to cup, and record this prior to disassembling anymore of the sax ... so I'll start doing that as well.

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Discussion Starter · #38 ·
I ordered a saxophone spring tool set today instead of trying to make one myself.
The link to the Spring hook also included a trove of information. Including servicing the micro tuner. The black museum is a good display of things gone wrong.
I noticed that site was great. I think I read every article pertinent to a saxophone ... very helpful! I keyed in on the micro-tuner article right away. It's interesting mine has two notches, but is a 1923 by serial number. It made me wonder if the neck may be a replacement ... but I doubt it, considering the pads seem original and there doesn't seem to be much play on it at all.

The micro-tuner on mine functions just fine with no slop at all. It all seems to be in great shape.

Whatever heat source you choose be careful you do not burn the pearls. You will need heat to remove the old pads.
I haven't thought that far ahead as to a heat source for installing the new pads. I have some propane as well as some butane torches, but no idea if either of those would be good for this.

In terms of the old pads, the ones which haven't already fallen off have been very easy to remove thus far. I just used my fingernail to pop them out, and then the dried adhesive in the cup is just flaking off by scratching at it. Maybe this is related to them being Conn-foil vacuum pads?

@Stoopalini be careful handling those pads. The foil is made from lead.
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Good to know, thanks! I'll be sure to dispose of them immediately as I remove them.

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Discussion Starter · #41 ·
Goody! You seem to also have a vintage Conn Eagle piece with it! I own the exact same horn in bronze. I bought it from someone who was an amateur repairer who either gave up or died (not from the effort of repairing it, although the stress could have contributed to it ;) ) When I bought it, it was completely repadded, but not regulated. I don't know how many shops you have asked the quote from, I shopped around and instead of being quoted $800 (with the warning that it could escalate in the process), I got the job completed for $400. As much fun as you will have with it, if you divide the amount of time that you will spend researching and repairing it, you might actually find a pro who would do it for less(if you do calculations on per hour rate basis). After the investment that I made into my C Mel, I am embarrassed to say that I do not play it nearly enough to justify owning it. It sounds as good as C Melodies come, but the keywork isn't ergonomic enough to make it a pleasurable experience, plus, I always have some event that I actually need to play other saxes, so it just sits there... So, spending all this time and potentially having it not used much might be a good thing if you want to gain some new experience, but remember what happened to my repairs guy LOL
Good insight. I'm actually not a horn player, but my son is. If you check out the 1st post in this thread, you'll see why I'm so keen on getting this playable ... It was my grandfather's and I really want my son to be able to play around on it (and he's very excited to be able to play it too).

I'm experienced in repairing and restoring stringed instruments, but have no experience with saxophones. I am fairly mechanically inclined and have a wide variety of both automotive and guitar tools. I did buy a digital caliper just for use on this sax though (my automotive ones are pretty grimey). I also bought some smooth jawed pliers (one with brass ends), a set of sax spring tools, a leak light test kit, and a decent precision screwdriver set. Having more tools is never a bad thing for me though :)

Of course, I'm also buying a lot of other things too ... oiling bottles with needle tips for penetrating oil and key oil, spare grub screws, replacement felt bumpers and pads, contact cement, fresh microfiber cloths, etc. Then I'll need the actual pads too.

So yes, in the end, this will end up costing me a decent amount, but what I learn along the way is worth it to me. Actually, yesterday, my son came home and said his alto was making strange sounds yesterday during class. I had him show me and I was able to do a quick inspection of the keys, pads, rods, bumpers, etc, etc ... Prior to taking on this rebuild, I really wouldn't have even known what to look for. When he played, he said it was making a sort of buzzing sound, but I didn't hear it. I was finally able to hear it, but only when I put my head next to his when he was playing. Turns out it was the octave key height when open. The air stream coming out was making a noise against the pad due to it not opening high enough. A quick adjustment to the octave key mechanism significantly reduced the noise he was hearing and he was happy.

I say all of that just to point out the value in going through this is more than getting my grandfather's sax in playable condition for my son, but it's also the learning I'll experience along the way which will enable me to help my son keep his saxophone's in good working condition ... or at least be able to recognize when something needs a pro to repair. I wouldn't dare attempt a repad on his Tenor or Alto ... at least not with the limited knowledge I have now. He needs to use the alto (Yamaha YAS200AD) every day, and the tenor (Yamaha 62-III) was too high of an investment ($$) for me to risk screwing up.

If I can get the C-Melody repadded and reassembled to the point of being somewhat playable, I'll be happy. Even if all the regulation isn't as it should be, or if some of the pads are leaky, etc ... I'll still be happy. Once I've done everything I can, then maybe I'll take it back to one of the shops to see if they'll regulate it for me ... assuming I don't royalty screw things up attempting a repad that is :)

Who knows, maybe when I'm done this will be a candidate for the Black Museum :ROFLMAO:

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Discussion Starter · #47 ·
I found one of these pivot screws on eBay, although it would be $50 after the $16 shipping charge he wants. The description states 4-40 threads

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And I confirmed with my tap and die set gauge as well

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For a heat source, I do have a heat gun but it's fairly large and probably not suitable for this type of work. I've used it to recondition old, sun worn, colored plastics before. It's about as big as a hairdryer and not easily mounted for detailed work like this. Plus I don't think I would be able to prevent the pearls from heating up due to its size.

I'll check out a solder hot air rework station ... I've a lot of soldering equipment already due to my electronics hobby, but never had a need to buy a hot air rework station before. I've a brother who also does a lot of electrics work and he may have one I can borrow.

I saw a video of a tech using a liquid bunsen burner with a wick. This seemed like a decent method for this, no?


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Discussion Starter · #51 ·
For that thread I'd span both threaded sections with the thread gauge to make sure. 4-40 and 4-48 aren't all THAT different over two and a half threads. I can't advise whether it'd be a better choice for you to pay $50 for one, or to make it yourself from 4-40 threaded rod, or to pay a machinist to turn off 50 of them and sell them to other people on the net.
Here's the gauge on the pivot screw from the other side of the same rod ...

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Discussion Starter · #56 ·
Kraus sells Conn pivot screws with a straight end that are 4-40 for very old Conns, and pivot screws with a "bullet" point that are 4-48 for "newer" Conns such as the 6M and 10M. Both sell for $3.50 a piece. The problem is Kraus sells only to professional techs and his minimum order is $100. He no longer shows Conn "set screws" on his price list. There has been some disagreement about the threads of the "set screws". Some say 1-72 works, and others say 1-64. Some have indicated that M2x0.4 are a workable substitute. I have a few of the older straight pivot screws on a "parts horn" that are available. Just send me a PM.
That would be great, thanks! PM sent ...

I ordered some grub screws from Feree's after an email conversation I had with them. They said their C-47 part number was the right one for my year Conn. I also ordered some felt bumpers and key felts in various sizes from them.

The rest of the disassembly has been going pretty smoothly, except for the upper stack rod. One of the cup sleeves (probably the wrong terminology for this) is causing a problem with the rod coming out. It's not completely frozen to it, but the rod spins when I actuate the cup ... but only the one cup in the upper stack, all the others move freely. It happens to be the center one.

So I've been dripping PB blaster on the tube joints, as well as filling the tube with PB blaster, and resting the horn upright to try and get it to work down to the center. I'll let it sit like that for 10-12 hours or so, and then work at pulling the rod out with my brass tipped smooth pliers. It's coming out, very slowly ...

Here's a pic showing how much of the rod I've been able to get out thus far. I've also indicated which cup is causing the problem.

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Here's a close up view of the section of tubing which moves with the rod. All other cups/tubes move freely.

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Is what I'm doing the best way to go about this? Meaning penetrating oil, time, and just pulling on the rod while rotating? I'm also putting a screwdriver into the slot, and putting some tension on it, then actuating the cup with my other hand to rotate the rod inside the problem tube. Just trying to get the penetrating oil work its way into whatever it is inside the tube causing the problem. I suppose heat would be a good thing to try, but I'm not sure I want to take that risk given my amateur skill set at this point.

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Discussion Starter · #59 ·
Ya, I was pretty upset with myself on that one. When I initially started working the rod out, when only a small portion was sticking out ... I was being very careful to grab the rod in such a way where the slot would not get crushed. Then when the rod was extended further and a post was getting in the way of grabbing the rod from the end, I grabbed it further up the shaft, using the pliers perpendicular to the shaft. Then at one point, the pliers slipped off the end while I was pulling, and that's when the slot got crushed :(

I'll chalk this up to another rookie mistake.

When it comes time to reassemble, I'll take it in to a local repair shop and see if they can fix it or make me a new one.

Inspecting the rod and the tubes, I can't see what was causing the problem. It looks like maybe it was just grime and build up of dirt maybe? I don't see anything wrong with the rod, and sliding all the pieces on the rod now doesn't cause any sticking.

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Discussion Starter · #63 ·
Thanks guys, I appreciate the tips.

I wasn't planning to try and use the damaged rod for reassembly, as the end got bent about 1-2 inches in from the slot. I've still got a ways to go before I need it though. For now, I'm concentrating on disassembly, documentation, and cleaning everything up as I go.

@saxoclese was gracious enough to offer me some straight ended Conn pivot screws he has from a parts sax :D, so I should be good there.Hopefully the lower stack rod comes out easier than the upper did. Lesson learned ... I put some penetrating oil onto the lower stack rod a couple of days ago, and have reapplied a few times already. Everything else is coming out very easily, so I'm hopeful I won't cause any more damage as I finish the disassembly.

My goal is to get it all apart, documented, cleaned up and ready to order the new pad set by the end of this week. So I'll need to figure out the upper stack rod replacement/repair sometime by next weekend or so.

I'm pleased it's cleaning up better than I thought it would. I've a spray bottle with dish soap and water I'm using with a microfiber cleaning cloth to remove the bulk of the grime. Then I'm using q-tips soaked with with PB blaster to hit the spots which look like small bits of rust (probably something else though?), then I'm finishing with a jewelry polishing cloth for a final wipe down. Working around the needle springs proves interesting, but I'm in no rush so am just taking my time and working on it little by little.

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Discussion Starter · #65 ·
What appears as "rust" will be the underlying brass showing through at small pits in the nickel plating. There's little you can do there except to clean things. You won't be able to polish nickel back into the pits, so don't waste your time trying.
I do see what you're describing, and I'm not concentrating too much on those areas. But there's also some areas which has what looks like rust to me (although I'm colorblind so it could be something different), and these areas are coming off easily with a q-tip and PB blaster. The soapy water isn't taking it off though. I figured it was just some sort of thin layer of oxidation which the penetrating oil is dissolving.

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Discussion Starter · #67 ·
Unfortunately I don't have the tools to do that sort of work, but @saxoclese came to the rescue again and made me a rod to replace the bent one! :D

More good news is the lower stack came out very easily, as did the rest of the pieces, with no stuck screws or rods. So now I'm just cleaning everything up little by little, and hopefully will be ordering the pads in the next day or two

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I had a question on the cups and tone holes ... is there anything I should do to them in preparation for new pads? Like lightly sand the rolled tone hole edges, or use some 0000 steel wool on them maybe ... or is it best just to mildly clean everything and leave them alone?

The old pads all popped off very easily using just my fingernail, and I then used a small flat blade screwdriver to scrape the old lacquer out of the cups. I don't think there's anything else I need to do here, is there? Perhaps wipe down the inside of the cups with zippo fluid before adhering the new pads?

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Thanks for everyone's help on this :)

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Discussion Starter · #71 ·
Great advice guys, thanks so much.

I've been watching Stohrer's videos on COA, pad sizing, adding shellac to pads, etc, etc ... and they've been a great help as well.

Mechanically, it makes sense to me. Ensure the tone hole is level, the cup is centered over the tone hole, and ensure the cup is parallel with the tonehole at a distance where the pad + adhesive thickness will be the same as the distance from the back of the cup to the tone hole edge.

Of course, much easier written than actually done, but I'll do my best.

If I find some tone holes which aren't level, can I assume the proper way to resolve that is through body manipulation because this horn has rolled tone holes? I wouldn't use a circular file with sandpaper on these, correct?

Another quick question: What type of adhesive is good to use for securing felt/cork to keys and the body? Just regular superglue, or should I use contact cement, or maybe a special type of adhesive specifically for felt?

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Discussion Starter · #73 ·
Perfect, thanks again!

I use very little felt, as its thickness is imprecise.
In one of Stohrer's videos, he addresses this point by stating he compresses the felt using a flat tool heated up. I was thinking of doing this in areas where the cork has completely deteriorated or is just missing all together.

It's at 17:17 n this video:

Most of the felt and cork bits on this horn are just gone. The little bits which are left are in really rough shape.
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